Chloridizing Plant

The chloridizing mill of the Standard Reduction Co. is located about 75 miles south of Salt Lake City on the Tintic branch of the Denver & Rio Grande Western R. R. and 12 miles from the Tintic Standard mine. The daily capacity is 200 tons of a siliceous, low-grade, silver-lead ore from this property. It has operated continuously since it was started in January, 1921.

The process consists essentially of a chloridizing roast followed by a percolating leach with a nearly saturated solution of common salt, acidified with sulfuric acid, the precipitation of silver on sponge copper and of copper and lead on tin-plate cuttings. The precipitates are shipped to a smelter. Some of the general ideas involved are said to have been used by Augustin in England, in 1840. A number of textbooks treat of the subject, especially the chloridizing roast followed by a leach with sodium hyposulfite or amalgamation. The process was revived in this district by Theo. P. Holt, N. C. Christensen, the Bureau of Mines, and others.

Nature of Ore Treated

The average assay of the ore treated during 1924 is as follows:

Gold, ounces per ton……………………………………………………………0.025
Silver, ounces per ton…………………………………………………………..18.26
Copper, per cent……………………………………………………………………..0.30
Lead, per cent………………………………………………………………………….5.00
Silica, per cent………………………………………………………………………65.00
Iron, per cent…………………………………………………………………………10.00
Lime, per cent…………………………………………………………………………0.70
Sulfur, per cent……………………………………………………………………….3.00
Arsenic, per cent…………………………………………………………………….0.70

The silver is finely disseminated and occurs as native, combined as a sulfide and, to a very small extent, as the chloride. The lead may be present as carbonate, sulfide, or sulfate.

Preparation of Ore for Roasting

The ore is received in standard, bottom-dump, railroad cars, crushed to 3 in. by a Kennedy 6F gyratory, then to ¾ in. by a 36-in. horizontal Symons disk. Finally the ore, with 8 per cent, salt, is run through two sets of Allis-Chalmers rolls, 16 by 48-in., working in series and in closed circuit; the final product passes through an 8-mesh screen with a clear opening of 0.071-in. Three Mitchell and two Colorado impacts are used in the roll circuit. The results of a screen test on the roll product and the distribution of the metals are as follows:

After grinding, the ore-salt mix is sampled by a mechanical sampling device in batches of 70 tons, each batch being run to a separate bin. For the purpose of furnace control, the sample is tested for its reducing power on litharge, which test indicates its fuel value. The latter is then adjusted to suit the requirements of the subsequent roasting operation by the addition of coal dust; this usually amounts to between 1 and 2 per cent. Before passing to the bins over the roasters, the mix is moistened with just enough water so that it will stick together as a ball when pressed in the hand. The actual amount of water needed will vary according to the fineness of the ore, but is approximately 7 per cent.; the ore, as received at the mill, has a moisture content of 2 to 3 per cent. The mix is now ready for the roasters.

Ore Roasted in Holt-Dern Furnaces

There are nine Holt-Dern blast roasters. These consist essentially of a row of reinforced-concrete boxes 7 by 9 by 5 ft. deep inside, set end to end; on the bottom are mechanically operated grates with hoppers underneath. On the long side, and 30 in. above the grates, are two double work doors which run the full length of each furnace. Above the furnace are the charge bins, with four segmental gates for each furnace. Leading into the hopper under the grates is a pipe through which an air blast is supplied at 8 oz. pressure by a direct-connected Sturtevant fan. A common flue, through which the gases are drawn, runs the full length of the furnaces.

These furnaces are operated as follows. Starting with a bed of hot calcines, about 10 in. deep, on the grates, sufficient ore mix is let down from the bins to fill the furnace even with the bottom of the work doors. After leveling, by hand, the air gate is opened and the sulfur and coal in the charge, ignited by the hot calcines on the bottom, gradually burn upwards, and as a rule, quite evenly over the whole area of the furnace. This takes a little over 3 hr.; at the end of this time, the whole mass is at a dull red heat, or about 700° C. The air gate is then closed and the grates put into, motion so that the charge is shaken into the hopper below, leaving enough hot calcines on the grates to ignite the next charge. The operation is then repeated. With each “drop,” 4¼ tons of calcines are obtained or 25 tons per furnace per 24 hr.

Leached by Percolation

As soon as convenient after shaking the calcines from the roasters, the gates at the bottom of the hoppers are opened and the calcines run into a concrete launder through which a stream of brine is flowing. This flushes the calcines into one of six concrete leaching tanks. These tanks are 28 ft. in diameter by 11 ft. deep, inside, and have a filter bottom, made up of crushed quartzite and two 3-in. earthenware cocks for discharge. A tank will hold about 225 tons of calcines when filled to within 8 or 10 in. of the top. After leveling, leaching is commenced. The effluent liquor is received in two concrete sump tanks of the same size as the leaching tanks. The first, and richer, part of the solution is received in one of these and is designated “pregnant solution.” It ordinarily carries about 3 oz. per ton of silver and 14 lb. of lead. The subsequent solution is received in the second tank and is called “weak.” This weak solution is used for sluicing the calcines from the roasters and for the first 24 to 48 hr. of the leaching period. After precipitating the metals from the pregnant solution, a barren liquor is obtained; this is used as the second leach solution over the next 48 hr. period, being received in the weak sump after passing through the leaching tank. Finally, each tank is washed for 8 hr. with water, to replace the last solution, then drained and sluiced through two bottom gates to the sump.

Summary of Leaching Cycle

The amount of solution that will run through a tank of calcines in 24 hr. varies from 200 to 300 tons.

Precipitation on Sponge Copper and Scrap Iron

The pregnant solution is pumped by air lifts from the sump tank to the silver precipitator. This really amounts to a four-compartment Pachuca tank with an air lift in each compartment for agitation. Each compartment is 11 ft. 4 in. by 11 ft. 4 in. in cross section and 10 ft. deep, to a pyramidal bottom, which adds 8 ft. to the over-all depth. It is built of reenforced concrete. In this, the solution is agitated with sponge copper to precipitate the silver, and flows through the four compartments in series; the fine copper is added intermittently as needed. When a sufficient amount of silver has accumulated in the first compartment, the solution is bypassed, that remaining in the compartment is decanted and the precipitated silver run to a filter box. Before shipping, this material is treated as noted later.

The effluent from the silver precipitator runs to eight concrete boxes, varying in depth from 18 in. to 3 ft., by 5 ft. wide and 30 ft. long, and filled with tin-plate cuttings. The boxes are provided with wooden grids, on which the cuttings rest, and with four baffles to interrupt the flow. Additional scrap is put in every day and one box is thoroughly cleaned each day, the precipitated copper being washed to a settling box. Part of this is used as the precipitant of the silver; the remainder is shipped to the smelter. It will contain about 100 oz. of silver per ton and 50 per cent, copper.

The solution flowing from the eight copper boxes is pumped with an “Olivite” centrifugal to a rectangular concrete tank containing about 1260 ft. of 1¼-in. copper pipe through which low-pressure steam is passed. Thus the solution is brought to a temperature of 75° C. and is then passed through fifteen additional boxes, similar to the copper boxes and likewise filled with tin-plate cuttings. In these, the lead is precipitated. It is necessary to add live steam also to these boxes, to maintain the temperature. The boxes are kept as full as possible with the cuttings and two of them are cleaned each day, the cuttings being removed and washed and the lead sluiced to a drain box; this is shipped to the smelter without drying. A partial analysis is given below:

Gold, oz……………………………………0.005
Alumina, per cent……………………3.00
Silver, oz……………………………………..6.58
Zinc, per cent……………………………0.50
Lead, per cent………………………..70.27
Arsenic, per cent…………………….0.10
Copper, per cent……………………..5.12
Antimony, per cent…………………0.10
Insoluble, per cent…………………..1.70
Ron, percent…………………………….5.52
Moisture content as shipped 21.38 per cent.

When using tin-plate cuttings, it has been found advantageous to remove first the tin coating; this is accomplished by treating them with a solution of caustic soda containing a small amount of litharge. The following reaction is involved.

2PbO + 2NaOH + Sn = Na2O.SnO2 + 2Pb + H20

The lead oxide is obtained by simply heating the lead precipitate in contact with air. The bales of scrap are loosened, placed in shallow iron boxes, and the caustic solution circulated through it, having in the circuit a small steam coil for heating. The tin at present is not recovered. The method is outlined in Schnabel, Vol. 2, page 541.

Additional Treatment given Silver Precipitates Before Shipment

The precipitate, as taken from the silver precipitator, will run 30 per cent, silver (8750 oz.), 15 per cent, copper, 2 per cent, lead, 25 per cent, arsenic, and 1 to 2 per cent, antimony, the remainder being largely insoluble, iron, and alumina. After washing and draining, this is placed on a small reverberatory hearth and heated slowly with an oil flame to dry. The temperature is then increased somewhat, when about 60 per cent, of the arsenic will be volatilized, the fume being caught in small bags. When the fumes are no longer emitted, the material is brought to a dull red heat and the copper oxidized. The product is then removed from the furnace, the lumps broken, and leached with a hot 25 per cent, sulfuric acid solution; this reduces the copper to about 1 per cent, and the arsenic to less than 0.75 per cent. Finally it is dried, sacked, and shipped, by express, to the smelter. It will run from 10,000 to 14,000 oz. silver per ton.

Recoveries and Costs

The recoveries of both silver and lead have gradually improved and, at present, the following can be consistently obtained. Gold none; silver, 89.8 per cent.; lead, 65.7 per cent.; copper, 52.2 per cent.

The following cost data represent the average for the year, 1924.

Department 1, unloading, crushing and grinding; 2, roasting; 3, leaching and precipitating silver and copper; 4, silver-product treatment; 5, lead precipitation; 6, chemical laboratory; 7, undistributed; 8, office and supervision.

Average labor wage per 8 hr. day…………………………$ 5.00
Salt costs, f.o.b. mill, per ton……………………………………..4.00
Slack coal, f.o.b. mill, per ton…………………………………….3.05
Tin-plate cuttings, f.o.b. mill, per ton……………………18.00

The cost of all experimental work to improve recoveries or operation is included in the above.

Miscellaneous Observations


Probably the roasting operation is the most satisfactory step in the process, whereas formerly roasting apparently caused much trouble on account of the volatilization of the silver and the skill required to obtain good chloridization. Using this method, with a reasonable amount of attention, there is only a negligible silver volatilization loss and a good conversion usually results. While it is an intermittent operation, two men per 8-hr. shift will roast 75 tons of ore and have time to spare.

As in most furnace operations, some points must be carefully watched, especially those regarding the preparation of the mix. While 8 to 10 per cent, of salt is used, a satisfactory chloridization may be obtained in the furnace with 5 to 6 per cent.; the balance is used to maintain a high chlorine concentration in the leaching solution. No detrimental effect has been observed when using this large excess, unless it is when the furnaces are running a little hot; then the salt may fuse, making the calcines slightly more difficult to shake through the grates. A thorough mixing of the salt is essential. The salt used is commonly known as “smelter salt” and is obtained from the Morton Salt Co. at Burmeister, Utah. It is shipped in bulk in bottom-dump cars and is handled the same as ore. In size, the crystals vary up to possibly ½ in. Salt containing a large proportion of fines, or “dairy salt,” is more difficult to pass through the plant, as it hangs up in all the bins. The salt, as received, is quite pure, samples usually showing a chlorine content equivalent to 97 per cent: NaCl.

It has been found in blast-roasting Tintic Standard ore, that for the most favorable operating conditions the sulfur permissible in the mix must be between 2 and 4 per cent. Good chemical results have been obtained with 1 per cent, sulfur, the balance of the fuel necessary being made up with fine coal; but the tendency on low-sulfur charges is toward uneven burning and a rapid loss of heat during the recharging period; Above 4 per cent, sulfur, Standard ore fuses too easily so that the resulting calcines are caked or sintered in hard lumps, which require a long time to shake through the grates. It is not the additional sulfur in itself that causes the fusion but the fusion point of the whole charge is lowered by the addition of the sulfide ore. With a high-sulfur charge, when the rate of burning is decreased by decreasing the air supply, the fusion still takes place.

The sulfur content is determined by fusion with litharge; this is supposed to be the sulfide sulfur but, of course, any other material that will reduce litharge will be reported as sulfur. It is the heating value of the charge that is sought. Some idea of the requirements in the charge may be obtained by noting that with a 3 per cent, sulfur 1½ per cent, coal is used; and as the sulfur changes, the coal is varied using the ratio sulfur: coal = 1:0.65. This method of adjusting the fuel value is purely empirical but commercially uniform results are obtained. It would be desirable to have a calorimeter determination on the roaster charge, but this is difficult for the total heat value is so low that an undue portion of some substance with a high heat value must be added in order to get the calorimeter charge to burn. However, some good work along this line has been done by the Salt Lake station of the Bureau of Mines and it is quite possible that a more satisfactory method for furnace control will be worked out.

The quantity of water iii the mix is important. Water is added primarily for the purpose of agglomeration and so forming a more porous orebed. It is supposed to assist in the chloridization, also, by the formation of hydrochloric acid. Too much water makes a hard calcine; too little makes slow roasters with a tendency to be “spotty.” If the ore just sticks together when pressed in the hand, it is about right. This is another unscientific procedure but moisture determinations are useless; 7 per cent, water is close to the amount usually needed with the present size of ore feed.

It would probably be difficult, surely slower, to blast-roast the ore if ground finer than it now is although no work has been done with increased blast pressure.

It does not require a great deal of skill to operate the roasters properly but the results obtained are largely dependent on the conscientiousness of the firemen. The roaster should be “dropped” immediately the operation is completed, thus the heat in the charge is conserved and a good ignition obtained on the next round, also; the calcines remaining on the grates should be leveled and care taken that there are hot calcines over the whole earth area. Spots that are a little cold should be covered with hot calcines from one of the other furnaces, or the next charge will develop dead spots, which must then be shoveled out or poor results obtained.


Presumably, the silver has been converted to the chloride or sulfate “in the roasters. (About half of it is soluble in strong ammonium hydroxid.) A strong brine is used for leaching but after having made the round trip through the plant a few times, it contains small amount of many substances. A number of determinations are made every day on the pregnant solution, the following being an example.

Specific gravity………………………………………………………………1.24 to 1.30
Acid, lb. per ton expressed as H2S04………………………….2 to 5
Silver, oz., per ton………………………………………………………………..3 to 5
Lead, per cent. (10 to 30 lb. per ton)…………………………0.5 to 1.5
Copper, per cent……………………………………………………………………0.1
Chlorine, per cent…………………………………………………………….12 to 15
Sulfur, per cent……………………………………………………………..0.75 to 1.2
Iron, per cent…………………………………………………………………………1 to 2

The amount of “ic” salts in solution is so small as to be almost indeterminable, the solution oxidizing very slowly in contact with air. This is unfortunate as the higher oxidized forms of both iron and copper, when dissolved in the brine solution, are good solvents for metallic silver and the sulfide, should these chance to escape the action of the roasters.

It is interesting to note the effect of the addition of very small amounts of copper sulfate to a fresh brine solution in its action on Tintic Standard ore without roasting, as shown by Fig. 1. The sample was ground to pass 120 mesh and leached by agitation, first with brine to which different amounts of copper sulfate were added and then, for the sake of comparison, a second portion with a brine carrying different amounts of sulfuric acid.

A small amount of free acid is necessary for consistent results in the solution of the silver. At times, especially when a rapid leach is made, a neutral brine dissolves the silver, but in the routine of plant leaching it is decidedly unsafe to allow the solution to approach neutrality more closely than is shown in the analysis. The silver is dissolved when using a solution short of acid and is then precipitated in the leaching tank, for while the top portion of the tailings will have a normal silver content the lower portions will steadily grow richer until they contain more than the original heads. But a small part of this silver can be dissolved when the tails are subjected to further leaching with solutions highly acidified.

Just what substances in the calcines cause this precipitation have not been determined. Lime, which exists in the ore up to 1.5 per cent, zinc, which seldom runs as high as 0.3 per cent., and metallic iron, introduced in grinding, have been investigated as possible interfering elements but no definite data obtained show that any of these could be the cause of the trouble.

The acid content of the solution is maintained for the most part by the direct addition of 66° sulfuric acid, although a small amount is absorbed by passing the solution through a spray chamber in the roaster flue system.

Iron even in the “-ous” state probably aids in the solution of the silver. Total iron seldom builds up as high as 2 per cent, in the solution in spite of the fact that all the precipitating of the metals is, in reality, done with scrap iron and no effort is made to remove it.

Trouble has been experienced when working with a solution saturated with respect to salt; i. e., one from which salt will separate on standing a short time. Being a denser, more syruplike liquid, it percolates more slowly and it does not seem to have the dissolving power for silver that a slightly weaker solution has. This is contrary to accepted solubility data as to silver chloride in brine. More acid will not correct the trouble; in fact this difficulty is not at all times apparent. No good reason has been found as to why this is so.

The mill solutions will carry between 25 and 30 oz. of silver per ton; as this concentration is not approached in practice, the solution has ample carrying capacity for silver. Dissolving the lead, however, is quite a different problem. Nearly all of the lead in the calcines is considered as being present as the sulfate and not as the chloride. It is well known that the amount of this substance that a brine will carry is dependent on the solution temperature, chlorine concentration, and sulfate content. The most difficult of these to control is the sulfate content and, while a number of schemes for removing this have been suggested, including freezing, evaporation, and the addition of various reagents, few have much merit commerically. By keeping the sulfate content of the leaching solutions down to 2 per cent, or under, expressed as Na2S04, it would be possible to obtain about 1¼ tons additional lead per day.

The effect of sulfates is shown in Table 1 (and graphically in Fig. 2), to obtain which, an excess of lead sulfate was left in contact with a brine solution containing 26 per cent, salt and the different amounts of sodium sulfate given, until it would dissolve no more. Also, the improvement by increased temperature is shown. It will be noted that the solutions with the large amounts of sulfate are not benefited as greatly by raising the temperature as those low in sulfates.

Calcium chloride was long ago recommended as a precipitant for these objectionable sulfates, but 70 to 75 per cent. CaCl2 costs $41.90 per ton delivered to the mill and it would require at least 5 tons a day. That this reagent improves the solution as a lead solvent is shown by the following experimental data. In this case, the plant solution was treated with different amounts of the calcium chloride to obtain the varying sulfate contents indicated. Lead sulfate was left in contact with frequent stirring until the solution would no longer dissolve it.

Slacked lime may be used in place of part of the calcium chloride, but alone it apparently acts as a precipitant for the sulfates only when there is iron in the solution, the resultant precipitate being a basic sulfate of iron. This is a very disagreeable material to handle as it is bulky and gelatinous. Also, lime acts very slowly and requires long agitation with the liquor to obtain efficient results. Finally, it is preferable to carry iron in solution.

To discard enough solution each day to control the sulfate content has been suggested, but this had no attraction commerically as it would require some 50 tons of salt.

About the most feasible plan, probably, is to increase the number of leaching tanks, thus allowing sufficient time to pass the desired amount of solution through the calcines; then the only added operating expense would be the cost of circulating the solution. In line with this, one of the tanks was held in the mill circuit for nine days as an experiment and an extraction of 92.5 per cent, of the lead was obtained.


Each day 1000 tons of pregnant solution are delivered to the precipitating department and the silver precipitated first by means of the copper afterwards obtained in the iron boxes. Working in this manner, the copper is never completely replaced by the silver. When the material reaches a copper content of about 15 per cent., the remaining copper behaves as though it were coated with some protecting substance and the silver begins to dissolve. The difficulty has been attributed to arsenic which is thrown down in the metallic state in both the silver precipitator and iron boxes. The remaining copper is not soluble in weak acids.

Of the precipitation of copper on iron, little need be said as the operation is common practice. As the copper product is used in an agitating apparatus with a continuous overflow, it is desirable to have it coarse or granular so that it will not float out of the silver precipitator. Large pieces of cast scrap give a more granular precipitate than light tin plate but the latter has the advantage of increased surface and makes a reagent free from adhering foreign matter that usually accompanies ordinary scrap iron. On the other hand, where it is necessary to keep the precipitator boxes filled at all times, the cuttings are more difficult to wash.

In the precipitation of lead on iron, the solution must be maintained at a relatively high temperature in order to get a sufficiently rapid action; 75° C. secures satisfactory results with the present precipitating capacity, but the solution must come in contact with the iron and not allowed a chance to bypass. As now conducted, the cleaning of the boxes calls for a high labor charge, but without doubt this can be greatly improved should it be decided to continue the use of tin-plate cuttings as the precipitant.

Structural and Mechanical Features

The process described was adopted after numerous tests made on the ore with various processes, such as concentration, flotation, volatilization, and cyanide, as it gave a higher and more consistent recovery at a reasonable cost than any of these. Owing to its nature, however, materials that could be used in the construction of the plant were practically limited to wood, siliceous concrete, and rubber. The structural and mechanical features may be of some interest. The general flow plan, Fig. 3, approximately indicates the arrangement and flow of ore and solu-

tions through the mill. The general ground arrangement of the plant, which is situated on a hillside, having a slope of 29° is shown in Fig. 4.

The railroad, entering the plant below the main mill building, delivers ore, salt and coal to bins, and the preliminary crushing plant, from which they are hoisted, in 45-cu. ft. skips, up a double-track incline, to a conveyor distributing to the storage bins at the top of the mill. A service tramway, with skip operated by a 50-hp. hoist, runs from the bottom of the hill alongside the mill building to the top ground floor, serving all floor levels, together with the machine shop, laboratory, warehouse, crushing plant, and carpenter shop, which are situated along this tram. The warehouse is also on the railroad; and all materials received can be delivered to any department of the plant with this skip.


The buildings are of wood, the sides being covered with a double thickness of 1-in. boards, with 40-lb. building paper between, and the- roofs with extra heavy Rubberoid laid on 1-in. boards.

The main mill building is approximately 282 ft. long and 182. ft. wide, with an extreme height of 40 ft. and an average height of 24 ft. There are no special features in the design, but all floors or sections spanned by trusses are of the same width, 33 ft., so that all trusses are exactly alike, which results in economy in construction. The slope of the roofs was

so made that, with this span, a minimum of material; consistent with required strength was realized. All bents are 13 ft. wide. All foundations and retaining walls are of reinforced siliceous concrete, and all the ground in the wet part of the mill is covered with a concrete coating, terminating in a general drainage sump in the lower end of the mill. Figs. 5 and 6 show the general plan and general cross-section, or sectional elevation of the mill.


The tests indicated that the finer the crushing, the better was the recovery; but at the same time a granular product was necessary for the roasting and leaching operations. So in the design,. attention was first directed to this step in the process and a crushing scheme was adopted and equipment selected that would fulfill this condition to the fullest extent possible. These are indicated on the general flow plan; the screen analysis previously given shows the product realized.

A gyratory followed by a Symons disk for the preliminary or coarse crushing, and large rolls and screens, in series, the screens preceding the rolls, so that fines are eliminated as fast as produced without further grinding, were adopted as being the most suitable for producing the desired result. The centrifugal action of the Symons in immediately discharging everything below the size to which the disks are set, produces a minimum of fines; and as the ore is dry, the machine gives no particular trouble. One set of manganese-steel disks crushes between 40,000 and 50,000 tons. An electromagnet is suspended over the short conveyor belt between the gyratory and Symons disk to remove tramp iron. Expressed in terms of original ore, the life of the coarse roll shells is about 25,000 tons; and of the fine roll shells about 30,000 tons. Each shell weighs 3000 lb.

The gyratory and Symons disk are driven from a line shaft by a 50-hp. motor, and run about 5 hr. out of the 24. A 125-hp. motor drives the rolls and elevators through a line shaft; they run about 20 hr. daily.

The fine ore and coal are withdrawn from the fine storage bins into a hoppered scale car, carrying 3000 lb., which is propelled by trolley and discharges into an ordinary tilting concrete mixer, which, in turn, delivers through hopper and belt feeder to an elevator. A belt conveyor receives the discharge of the elevator, and delivers it to a paddle mixer, where it is moistened. A shuttle conveyor directly beneath the paddle mixer distributes the product to the roaster bins.

Holt-Dern Roasters

The inception and early development of the roaster is described by Theo. P. Holt; as used in this plant, it is shown in Fig. 7. There are nine of these—seven in one bank and two in another. The general structure is of reinforced, siliceous concrete. The roasting chamber sides are ¼-in. steel plate, lined with 6 in. of concrete; the ends, which are formed by the 10-in. partition walls, have also an additional 6-in. concrete lining. This lining gradually disintegrates and must be renewed about once a year.

At the bottom of the roasting chamber, there are fifteen rocking grates, 7 ft. long spaced 7¾ in. apart. Each consists of a 2¼-in. square steel shaft, passing through the cast-iron grate bars, which are made in sections 21 in. long, and are shown in cross section. They have four longitudinal ribs, 1½ to 2 in. high, 90° apart, the vertical ribs being solid, while the horizontal ribs are notched for free passage of the air through the grates. When the top rib is worn down, the shaft is turned over and the opposite rib used; when both are worn they are replaced with new bars. These bars wear about 1½ year. The grates rock through an angle of 60°, and are actuated in pairs by segmental gears on each shaft, which are given a reciprocating motion through connecting rods by two main cranks. These are revolved through bevel gears and pinions from a line shaft, each pinion being attached to a friction clutch, which is keyed to the shaft. Thus half of the grates in a roaster can be operated at a time, and the starting load is only one-half as large. The grate shafts pass through stuffingboxes, with glands in cast-iron plates, in each side of the roaster. On the gear, or driving, side, they turn in rigid bearings that are supported on a cast-iron filling piece resting on a 12-in. I-beam; on the opposite side, the glands of the stuffingboxes serve as bearings. The bearings are specially designed, with caps fitting

accurately in deeply machined grooves and a dowel between the bases and the cast-iron support, so that the shafts are held firmly in place. The gears are thus held in mesh always on their pitch lines and there is no sliding contact, so that the wear of the teeth is reduced to a minimum and any lost motion is prevented in the movement of the grates—an important feature. The whole mechanism is so designed that any bearing, or any other part, can be quickly and easily repaired or replaced, so that there may be no delays in the operation of the roaster and the roast can always be quickly discharged. The line shaft is driven by a 15-hp. motor on each end, one of which is a spare; from 2 to 5 hp. is required for each motor after starting. If the charge is “hard,” or partly sintered, double this power is sometimes required to start the grates. From 5 to 15 min. are required to “drop” or discharge the roasted charge.

The Sturtevant gas blower, supplying air to the nine roasters at 8 oz. pressure, has a capacity of 15,000 cu. ft. per min., and is direct connected to a 75-hp., 1800-r.p.m. motor. There are two of these, one being kept in reserve.

The gases issuing from the roasters have a temperature of only 35° to 55° C., so that an exhaust fan is necessary to remove and discharge them through an absorbing chamber and short stack. This fan is

72 in. in diameter, 35 in. wide, and is housed in a concrete casing. It is driven by a 15-hp. motor at 250 r.p.m. Originally, the fan runner was completely rubber covered; now only the spider is rubber covered and the blades, which are of 3/16-in. steel, are painted with six coats of elaterite paint. This coating lasts three to four months. The stack is 5 ft. in diameter and 40 ft. high and rests on top of the fan casing. It is made of 3 by 6 in. plank with round iron bands, similar to wood-stave pipe.

Leaching Tanks, Precipitating Boxes, and Tanks

These are all of reenforced, siliceous, concrete, and great care was exercised in the designs, preparation of the materials, and placing of the concrete. The aggregate was composed of crushed quartzite, taken from one of the mine dumps, and siliceous sand, part of which consisted of fines from crushing the quartzite, the SiO2 content being 96 per cent. The walls and bottom of tanks are 8 in. thick, while those of the precipitation boxes are from 5 to 7½ in. Test blocks were made in all cases, and a mixture made up to stand 2500 to 3000 lb. per sq. in. in compression, while the reenforcing steel was calculated on a basis of 10,000 lb per sq. in. safe tensile strength. The true mix varied from 1:3 to 1:4, and the maximum size of the aggregate was 1¼ to 1½ in. The proportions of coarse and fine aggregate were about 65 and 35 per cent., respectively, and none of the concrete has shown any penetration or leakage of solution. There are two circular discharge holes 13 in. in diam. in the bottom

of each tank; and on the underside a circular dovetail groove, 5/8 in. deep, 1¼ in. wide on the bottom, and 1 in. on top was cast around each hole. A soft-rubber packing ring to fit this groove, and thick enough to project 5/8 in. from the concrete is inserted. The gate, made of two thicknesses of 3-in. plank, doweled together with wooden pins, is drawn up against the rubber packing ring by means of a rubber-covered 1¼-in. rod extending through the tank and a beam 2 ft. above the top, which is supported, by two posts resting on the tank bottom. The two 3-in. stoneware cocks for discharging solution are screwed into wooden nipples set in the sides of the tank just at the bottom. The quartzite gravel, forming the filter bottom, rests on triangular strips that are supported by 2 by 4 in. pieces lying on the tank bottom. These strips were made by ripping 6 by 6 in. sticks diagonally, and are held apart by small pieces.

The silver precipitators were made of about the same mix as the leaching tanks, with the same proportion of steel; but a 1:5 mix was used in the construction of the copper and lead precipitation boxes. There is no deterioration or penetration of the concrete, even by the hot solutions in the lead precipitation boxes; but as these are decanted and washed out at frequent intervals with cold water, cracks occasionally develop, which are simply chipped out and filled in with a 1:1 cement mortar. On the other hand, the walls of the absorber chamber, where the roaster gases are drawn horizontally through falling sprays of solution, do not endure. The cement is gradually dissolved and the walls disintegrate. They are now protected with elaterite painted plank, which lasts over a year. The sides of the fan casing have also softened to a depth of ¾ in., but they remain this way without disintegrating and it has been unnecessary to repair them.

Air Lifts

Solutions are pumped from the sump tanks at the lower end of the plant to the sluice launders under the roaster hopper discharge gates, the absorber, precipitators, and the leaching tanks with four air lifts, made of bored redwood pipe, two of which are 5 in. and two 4 in. inside diameter. These lifts are supported by the tower shown near the lower end of the mill in Fig. 6. The net lift is 60 ft. above the top of the tanks, and submergence is obtained by a two-compartment concrete-lined shaft 60 ft. deep, connected with the sumps. A 1-in. rubber-covered air hose enters each of the pumps a few feet above the top of the tanks, and extends down to about 18 in. from the bottom. The pipe lengths are from 8 to 14 ft. and the joints of the submerged portion are held together with four 2 by 10-in. planks 5 ft. long, doweled to the pipe with wooden pins. Iron clamps, 2 to 3 ft. apart, are put on the unsubmerged part to prevent splitting. Each pump terminates, on top, in a discharge barrel 32 in. in diameter and 42 in. deep, which discharges into a launder. Air is supplied at 40 lb. pressure for the air lifts and silver precipitators by three motor-driven compressors, having a total capacity of 900 cu. ft., which is more than ample, so that when repairs are necessary on any one, pumping is not interfered with. The 5-in. pumps will each handle 130 gal. permin., and the 4-in., 110 gal. These air lifts are quite satisfactory, except that occasionally a crack develops in the submerged portion, requiring the pulling of the pump and replacing of the broken length; which is slow, arduous, and somewhat expensive. Two 2-in. centrifugal “Olivite” pumps handle barren solution with lifts of about 20 ft. In these, the casing is lined and the runner covered, with a composition that is not affected by the solutions. They discharge through rubber-lined pipe, which so far has shown no deterioration. These pumps may, in time, replace the air lifts.

The solutions are carried about the plant in wooden launders made of 2-in. plank, held together with clamps, but the wood shrinks and softens, especially from the hot solutions, making it very difficult to prevent leaks. To overcome this, the solution launders are lined with a cement mortar, made of one part siliceous sand, one part quartzite gravel of a maximum size of 3/8 in., and a two-thirds part of cement. Wire netting, 1-in. mesh, is placed in the launder, conforming to the sides and bottom, together with some ¼-in. rods, the launder partly filled with the mortar, and the inside forms, made in 6- or 8-ft. lengths, are then set in and pressed into the mortar, forcing it up on the sides, when it is rammed and levelled up to the top. The bottoms of the sluicing launders carrying the hot roasted ore in solution are lined with concrete slabs of the above mixture, 30 by 16 by 1½ in., cast in separate molds and cured for several days. Slabs 7 in. wide are used on the sides. A concrete air agitation tank, 8 ft. deep and 4 ft. in diameter, in which the oxidized copper is leached out of the silver precipitates with a hot 25 per cent, sulfuric-acid solution, slowly disintegrated, but a sulfur-and-sand lining, made of equal parts of melted sulfur and fine sand, thoroughly mixed and poured in a form, making it 1½ in. thick, has stood very well. Care must be used to keep the temperature of the sulfur just above the melting point, and to pour the mixture quickly before the sand settles out.

Heating Solution

Steam for heating the solutions is supplied by three boilers, two of which, aggregating 110 hp., supply steam to the copper coils, the condensation returning to the boilers through a trap. The coils become coated with a hard scale, precipitated out of the solution, which gradually lowers their efficiency until it becomes necessary to knock off the scale. The other boiler, a 125-hp. return tubular, supplies live steam direct to the solutions in the precipitation boxes, after it has passed through the coil box, and to any other places where steam is required. While this is the normal method of running, a double system of steam piping permits the steam from any one, two, or the three boilers to be run to either the coil or live steam systems. The three boilers consume about 11 tons of slack coal per day, and 1000 tons of solution |are heated from 48° to 75° C.


Water supply for the plant is pumped from a spring at the base of the hill to a 140,000-gal. wooden storage tank above the mill, by a 250- gal. per min., triplex pump, driven by a 30-hp. motor, running 18 hr. daily; the net lift is 225 ft.

Power is delivered to the plant at 44,000 volts, by the power company, transformed to 2200 volts for all motors over 30 hp., and to 220 volts for all under that size. The motors are all wired with three-conductor lead-covered cable, and all wiring for lights is lead encased. The total con¬nected load amounts to 700 hp., but the average maximum demand reading is about 500 hp.

Well-equipped machine and carpenter shops enable practically all repairs to be quickly made at the plant. As the process as a whole is rather destructive, the repairs are considerable, but the plant has now been in operation 4½ years without a shutdown.